Understand career clusters and career pathways.
Evaluate HVACR career options.
Determine which exams and corresponding certifications are most suited for achieving your career goals.
Understand the tools needed for success in the workplace.
Understand the value of an accredited HVACR program.
Explain the value of continuing education and training. Understand EPA regulations as they relate to air conditioning and refrigeration.
Become involved in HVACR service organizations and trade associations.
Describe OSHA and its purpose.
Properly assess electrical, fire, temperature, pressure, refrigerant, chemical, and breathing hazards.
Explain the components of a safety data sheet (SDS).
Discuss the need for personal protective equipment (PPE) for head, hearing, eye, and respiratory protection.
Exercise safe practices when lifting, using a ladder or scaffold, for fall protection, in confined spaces, and for hand and power tools.
Describe three general categories of HVACR service.
Explain the steps in a standard troubleshooting procedure.
Evaluate a problem in a logical and systematic sequence.
Select a remedy for a problem using a three-step procedure.
Explain how a technician’s appearance and conduct affects customer relations.
Understand the basics for writing service estimates and service contracts.
Differentiate between matter and energy.
Summarize the relationship between force, work, and power.
Differentiate between the Fahrenheit, Celsius, Rankine, and Kelvin temperature scales.
Use the appropriate formulas to calculate enthalpy, specific enthalpy, and changes in heat for a given substance.
Compare the radiation, convection, and conduction methods of heat transfer.
Illustrate the differences between the three states of matter.
Differentiate between sensible heat and latent heat.
Predict the effect of a drop-in temperature or an increase in pressure on a saturated vapor.
Summarize the relationships between mass, weight, and density.
Describe the effect on gas pressure and temperature when its volume is increased or decreased.
Describe Pascal’s law and provide examples of it in the HVACR industry.
Illustrate the effect of pressure and heat on the three states of matter.
Differentiate between gauge pressure and absolute pressure.
Understand how the concepts of Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, Gay-Lussac’s law, and the combined gas law explain the behavior of refrigerant in the operation of a mechanical refrigeration system.
Describe Dalton’s law and explain how it can be applied to HVACR work.
Explain the significance of saturated vapors in a refrigeration system.
Describe how the processes of air exchange, pressure change, and state change provide a cooling effect.
Explain how phase changes are used in refrigeration systems to transfer heat.
Describe how phase change is possible through pressure change or the addition or removal of heat.
Summarize the four phases of the compression refrigeration cycle.
Identify the components that divide the low and high sides of a compression refrigeration system.
Understand the purpose of each of the components in a compression refrigeration system.
Explain how to use various hand tools.
Select the appropriate hand tool for a specific task.
Select the appropriate power tool for a specific task.
Monitor temperature with various thermometers.
Identify different types of fastening methods and devices.
Compare cleaning methods and the use of various solvents.
Identify basic supplies needed on a typical installation or service call.
Follow approved safety procedures.
Distinguish among the various types of tubing and piping used in refrigeration work.
Explain the uses of the various types of tubing and piping in refrigeration work.
Perform tube cutting and bending procedures using proper methods.
Complete various tubing and piping connecting procedures using approved methods.
Use safe and accepted soldering and brazing techniques.
Follow approved safety procedures.
Recognize the effect of halogenated refrigerants on the ozone layer.
Summarize Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing refrigerants.
Differentiate between CFC, HCFC, HFC, and blended refrigerants.
Identify refrigerants according to their series number and cylinder color code.
Interpret pressure-temperature curves, pressure-enthalpy tables, and pressure-enthalpy diagrams.
Summarize the properties and common applications of different refrigerants.
Identify which types of refrigerants are compatible with which lubricants.
Distinguish between the different types of refrigerant cylinders and identify the proper use of each type.
Identify the different kinds of pressure gauges and how they are used.
Recognize the various types of service valves used on refrigeration systems.
Understand the purpose, construction, and operation of a gauge manifold.
List the types of leak detection methods and their advantages and disadvantages.
Explain the purpose for using a vacuum pump.
Describe the types of equipment used for refrigerant recovery and recycling.
Check refrigerant charge by determining a system’s superheat or sub-cooling.
Implement both passive and active refrigerant recovery procedures.
Charge a system with an inert gas to pressure test for leaks.
Carry out refrigeration system leak repairs using either epoxy resin or brazing.
Evacuate a refrigeration system using both deep vacuum and triple evacuation methods.
Charge a specific amount of refrigerant into a system as either a liquid or vapor.
Follow approved safety procedures when recovering and charging refrigerant.
Identify the parts of an atom.
Use Ohm’s law to explain the mathematical relationship among voltage, current, and resistance.
Contrast the properties and applications of static electricity, direct current, and alternating current.
Summarize the three types of materials used in electrical and electronic parts and systems.
Design diagrams of series, parallel, and series-parallel circuits.
Use formulas to calculate the voltage drop across an electrical load.
List the components of an electromagnet and factors that affect the strength of its magnetic field.
Use mathematical formulas to calculate root mean square values, apparent power, and power factor.
Summarize how resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance cause power loss and affect power factor in electrical circuits.
Understand the difference between single-phase and three-phase power.
Define a Class 2 circuit and identify the types of electrical connections an HVACR technician is permitted to make.
Recall wire size terminology and connect wires using wire terminals and crimping.
Explain the importance of properly grounding and bonding an electrical system.
Describe the purpose and operation of various overcurrent protection devices used in circuits.
Identify the different types and causes of common electrical problems.
Discuss how electrons and holes move through a semiconductor based on the principle of hole flow.
Explain how forward biased and reverse biased diodes affect the flow of current in a circuit.
Define a control circuit and distinguish between electronic and electrical devices used in a control circuit.
Summarize the operation of various electronic semiconductor devices and how they are used in HVACR systems.
Understand the purpose of microprocessors and computers in HVACR.
Identify the basic parts of a motor.
Explain how a motor operates based on the codependent relationship of magnetism and electricity.
Calculate a motor’s synchronous speed and explain how it is different than the motor’s full-load speed.
Compare how motor windings and capacitors are used to start single-phase motors.
Summarize the different starting and running characteristics of various single-phase motors.
Understand the structure and basic operation of a three-phase motor.
Identify the differences between electronically commutated motors and ac motors.
Select the proper motor for an application by analyzing standard motor data found on motor nameplates.
Identify the different applications of motors in HVACR systems.
Understand the difference between pictorial and ladder circuit diagrams.
Describe how range and differential adjustments are used to calibrate temperature and pressure controls.
Identify the various types of temperature-sensing devices used in motor controls.
Compare the operation of various electromagnetic and electronic motor starting relays.
Use different testing instruments to measure electrical variables in a circuit
Test motor winding insulation using a megohmmeter and perform maintenance based on the measured resistance.
Determine the cause of motor trouble by checking a motor’s current draw, start and run capacitors, and internal temperature.
Measure a three-phase motor’s voltage and winding resistance to test it for single phasing.
Use an ohmmeter to take measurements on a hermetic compressor motor and determine whether it has a shorted winding, an open winding, or a short to ground.
Start a stuck hermetic compressor motor by connecting a hard start kit to the compressor terminals.
Service fan motors by identifying connection problems, fan problems, and electronically commutated motor trouble codes.
Properly lubricate motor bearings and install belts connecting external motors to belt-driven units.
Troubleshoot and replace faulty control system components, such as thermostats and motor starting relays.
Summarize the design differences between open-drive compressors, fully hermetic compressors, and semi-hermetic compressors.
Identify the components of a reciprocating piston compressor and summarize their functions.
Understand how a Scotch yoke type of reciprocating compressor works.
Explain how a rotary compressor works.
Summarize the differences between rotating vane and stationary blade rotary compressors.
Understand how a scroll compressor works.
Explain how a screw compressor works.
Identify the components of a centrifugal compressor and summarize their functions.
Identify and explain the purpose of compressor cooling and lubrication systems, mufflers, and crankcase heaters.
Explain ideal compressor operating conditions and requirements.
Describe the use and operation of compressor protection devices, such as overcurrent protection devices, overload devices, crankcase pressure regulators, discharge line pressure switches, and discharge line thermostats.
Explain the role an accumulator plays in a system and how it accomplishes its purpose.
Understand the components that maintain proper oil and refrigerant flow to the compressor.
Explain the operation of oil separators, oil reservoirs, oil level regulators, and oil safety control.
Summarize the purpose of vibration absorbers and the techniques for installing them.
Explain the purpose and operation of crankcase heaters.
Summarize the purpose of metering devices.
Categorize metering devices as modulating or fixed.
Summarize the design and function of capillary tube and fixed-orifice metering devices.
Explain the design and function of common types of thermostatic expansion valves (TXVs).
Summarize the design and function of automatic expansion valves (AXVs).
Explain the design and function of common types of electronic expansion valves (EEVs).
Understand the differences between high-side float (HSF) refrigerant controls and low-side float (LSF) refrigerant controls.
Compare and contrast air-cooling and liquid-cooling evaporators.
Explain the construction of fin-and-tube, plate, and microchannel evaporators.
Compare and contrast domestic, air-conditioning, and commercial refrigeration evaporators.
Summarize the operation of evaporator defrost controls and defrosting methods.
Describe the different types of water-cooled condensers.
Explain the modes of operation of evaporative condensers.
Compare and contrast domestic, air-conditioning, and commercial refrigeration condensers.
Explain the two primary functions of refrigerant loop components.
Describe the purpose and uses of liquid receivers.
Differentiate between the distinct duties of filters and driers.
Explain the function of suction line and liquid line filter-driers.
Explain how sight glasses can be used to indicate the amount of moisture in a refrigeration system.
Describe the operation and use of refrigerant line valves, shutoff valves, service valves, check valves, solenoid valves, hot-gas defrost valves, hot-gas bypass valves, and liquid injection valves.
Explain the operation and purpose of crankcase pressure regulators (CPRs).
Compare the operation of the different types of evaporator pressure regulators (EPRs).
Compare and contrast the different types of relief valves available.
Describe the different head pressure control valves and condenser arrangements and explain how they operate to maintain head pressure.
Summarize the differences between domestic refrigeration systems and commercial refrigeration systems.
Recall the causes of food spoilage and explain how domestic refrigeration systems minimize spoilage.
Summarize the operation of an automatic defrost system in a frost-free freezer.
Illustrate airflow patterns in top, bottom, and side-by-side refrigerator-freezer units.
Explain how refrigerator and freezer cabinets are constructed.
Identify the features of gaskets used in refrigerator and freezer doors.
Identify available and innovative refrigeration and freezer units.
Explain the function of the basic components in a domestic compression refrigerator-freezer.
Understand how common cooling controls maintain the desired conditions inside a domestic refrigerator-freezer.
Describe how dampers are used to control temperatures in frozen food and fresh food compartments of a domestic refrigerator-freezer.
Understand the operation of common defrost systems used in domestic refrigerator-freezers.
Explain the purpose of condensation controls in domestic refrigerator-freezers and describe their operation.
Describe the methods used to control conditions inside crispers and humidity-controlled drawers.
Check domestic compression refrigerators for proper installation.
Use the proper procedure for starting a domestic refrigerator-freezer.
Interpret common symptoms of system malfunction.
Use proper procedures to test a domestic refrigerator-freezer’s auxiliary circuits.
Explain the use of piercing valves, pinching tools, and valve adapters.
Interpret temperature and pressure conditions inside a refrigeration system to determine points of failure.
Summarize common symptoms of internal component failure and their possible causes.
Apply the proper techniques to clean a condenser and compressor in a domestic refrigerator.
Explain the steps required to prepare a domestic refrigerator or freezer for internal service.
Summarize the steps required to return a domestic refrigerator or freezer to service after a motor burnout.
Apply the proper procedure to remove and replace a compressor in a domestic refrigerator or freezer.
Use the proper procedures to repair leaks in condensers and evaporators.
Apply the proper procedures to clean or replace a capillary tube.
Summarize the procedure for selecting, removing, and installing filter-driers.
Compare the different methods of charging a small hermetic refrigeration system.
Summarize different methods of calibrating, testing, and adjusting thermostatic controls in refrigerator-freezers.
Explain considerations to take when removing system components from a cabinet.
Summarize the steps required to properly discard or store a domestic refrigerator or freezer.
Understand the concepts of climate and weather.
Summarize the purpose of air-conditioning systems.
Identify the layers of the atmosphere and the primary components of air.
Understand the relationships between humidity, relative humidity, and dew point.
Use a hygrometer to measure moisture in the air.
Differentiate between wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures.
Explain the principles of psychometry and the use of psychrometric charts.
Summarize the range of air conditions that fall within the human comfort range.
Understand how air movement affects human comfort.
Use anemometers, pitot tubes, and manometers to measure air velocity.
Identify external factors that affect indoor air conditions.
Identify the agencies and standards that regulate indoor air quality.
Categorize indoor air pollutants as solid or gas pollutants and provide examples of each.
Recall the factors that affect indoor air quality.
Recognize the main sources of pollutants that adversely affect residential and commercial indoor air quality.
Summarize the processes used to assess residential and commercial indoor air quality.
Summarize the steps that can be taken to prevent indoor air quality problems.
Differentiate between sick building syndrome, building-related illness, and multiple-chemical sensitivity.
Compare the different types of air filters available.
Summarize the different air cleaning methods used to improve indoor air quality.
Explain the operation and maintenance of ultraviolet air treatment system.
Differentiate between heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) and energy recovery ventilators (ERVs).
Recall the properties of air that affect air distribution system design or installation.
Categorize air circulation systems.
Determine the basic ventilation requirements for a given space.
Identify the basic types of air duct systems.
Explain the relationships between air distribution and duct sizing and design.
Understand the procedure for correctly sizing ducts.
Recall the various methods for checking airflow and air leakage.
Explain how to identify, isolate, and correct duct noise problems.
Use proper equipment and techniques to clean a duct system.
Apply knowledge of airflow to balance a duct system.
Recall methods of removing odors from the air.
Summarize periodic maintenance tasks that must be performed on fans.
Explain procedures for inspecting and servicing various types of air filters.
Explain the purpose of comfort cooling systems.
Describe the cooling and dehumidifying process of an air-conditioning system and show the relationship of dry-bulb temperature, moisture content, and relative humidity on a psychrometric chart.
Summarize the characteristics of window and wall-mounted room air conditioners.
Install and service window and wall-mounted room air conditioners.
Discuss the operation and application of packaged terminal air conditioners and console air conditioners.
Identify the characteristics and uses of portable air conditioners.
Explain the operation, components, and arrangement of ductless split systems.
Install and service ductless split systems.
Identify the characteristics of a central air-conditioning system.
Explain the differences between unitary and field-erected air-conditioning systems.
Identify the characteristics of a split air-conditioning system.
Identify the types of controls commonly used in central air-conditioning systems.
Summarize the steps required to install central air-conditioning.
Identify the areas of a central air-conditioning system that must be periodically inspected.
Explain the tasks that must be completed as part of central air-conditioning system service.
Understand the operation of variable refrigerant flow (VRF) as it is used in residential heating and cooling systems.
Summarize the features of rooftop units and packaged outdoor air-conditioning units.
Identify the types of controls commonly used in commercial air-conditioning systems.
Explain how variable refrigerant flow is incorporated into commercial air-conditioning applications.
Explain the basic operation of a chiller system.
Compare the different types of compressors that can be used in chiller systems.
Explain the basic function and operation of a cooling tower.
Explain the absorption refrigeration cycle and process.
Identify the heat sources that can be used to operate an absorption air-conditioning system.
Summarize the operation of residential and commercial absorption chillers.
Compare direct-fired and indirect fired absorption systems.
Understand the difference between single-effect and double-effect absorption chillers.
Explain the differences in operation between ammonia and lithium bromide absorption systems.
Understand how multiple absorption units can be combined in a multiple unit load system.
Summarize the energy efficiency advantages of an absorption air-conditioning system.
Explain the basic concepts behind evaporative cooling.
Understand how a roof pond works.
Summarize the function of a roof mist cooling system.
Summarize the steps involved in absorption cooling system service.
Understand the basics of relative humidity (rh), moisture content in the air, and the effect of dry-bulb temperature on humidity levels.
Summarize the design and operation of a typical dehumidifier.
Understand the steps involved in humidifier installation and service.
Describe how a thermostat can function in different roles in HVACR systems.
Explain the operating principles of different temperature-reactive components and the switching components used in thermostats.
List the features and options available in modern thermostats.
Understand the differences among heating, cooling, combination, and multistage thermostats.
Understand the purpose and operation of anticipators in thermostats.
Summarize the operations and applications of line-voltage, low-voltage, and millivolt thermostats.
Identify and explain the operation of line-voltage thermostats.
Explain the operation of low-voltage thermostats.
Understand the use and operation of millivolt thermostats in standing-pilot heating systems.
Explain the use and operation of wireless and power-stealing thermostats.
Program and set up a programmable thermostat.
Identify thermostat wiring terminals by their letters.
Arrange free cooling through the use of an air-side economizer in a forced-air HVAC system.
Evaluate a building to determine suitable locations for thermostats and remote sensing devices.
Diagnose an HVAC system that is not operating properly by using its thermostat.
Diagnose a high current draw on a step-down transformer used with a low-voltage thermostat.
Understand the operation and purpose of the various components used in a forced-air zoned system.
Troubleshoot forced-air zoned system that is not operating properly.
Understand the principles of heat loss and heat gain.
Compare the sources of heat loads for heating and heat loads for cooling.
Explain the relationship between a material’s K-value, C-value, U-value, and R-value and the rate at which heat is transferred through the material.
Summarize the use of indoor and outdoor design temperatures in calculating heat loads.
Understand the relationship between surface area and heat transfer rate.
Compare the techniques for finding a building component’s heat transfer rate using the component’s C-values, K-values, U-value, and R-values.
Explain how heat load calculations differ depending on whether the building is built on a basement, a slab, or a crawl space.
Understand infiltration and exfiltration and explain their effects on heat load.
Summarize the effect of sunlight on cooling loads and methods of reducing sun loads.
Understand heat lag and its effect on heat loads.
Identify miscellaneous smaller heat loads within a building that affect the calculation of total heating or cooling loads.
Use a worksheet or computer program to properly calculate total heating and cooling loads for a building.
Identify the basic components of a forced-air heating system and explain their functions.
Understand the difference between a condensing and a noncondensing furnace.
Describe the different types of indoor blower and combustion blower arrangements.
Compare and contrast upflow, downflow, and horizontal furnaces.
Summarize the operation of two-stage furnaces and modulating furnaces.
Explain how makeup air units improve system efficiency and prevent negative pressure from developing in a house.
Understand how blower function can be controlled using time-delay controls and thermostatic controls.
Summarize the design and purpose of unit heaters.
List the basic components of a hydronic system and explain their functions.
Explain the purpose of hydronic system water treatment.
Describe the different types of hydronic system designs.
Summarize the different methods for installing radiant heating systems.
Identify various controls used in hydronic systems and explain their functions.
Perform regular maintenance and service on a steam heating system.
Explain how to balance a hydronic system and prepare it for initial start-up.
Troubleshoot boiler and water circulation problems in a hydronic system.
List the steps required to purge series loop systems, one-pipe systems, and zoned systems.
Describe the basic operation of a heat pump in heating mode and in cooling mode.
Summarize the difference between ground-source heat pumps and air-source heat pumps.
Identify a heat pump system’s principal components.
Explain how a reversing valve operates and how it controls the direction of refrigerant flow through a heat pump.
Compare and contrast different types of coils and loops used in heat pump systems.
List two common methods used to defrost heat pumps.
Understand how auxiliary heat is used in conjunction with heat pumps.
Summarize how heat pumps can be combined with solar heating systems.
Perform routine maintenance and service on heat pump systems.
Identify the components necessary for and products of combustion.
Understand how the ratio of air to fuel affects combustion efficiency.
Describe the differences in design between medium-efficiency and high-efficiency gas furnaces.
Classify the different types of materials used for chimneys and flue pipes.
Summarize the basic operation of an oil furnace.
Identify the characteristics of fuel oil.
Perform several tests to check the combustion efficiency of an oil-fired heating system.
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using a one-pipe or two-pipe fuel delivery system.
Describe the functions of different fuel line components.
Identify oil burner components and explain their purposes.
Explain how stack relays and cad cell relays are used to detect the presence of a flame.
Describe the difference between interrupted and intermittent ignition.
Define the various functions of a primary control unit.
Follow code requirements for installing fuel lines and storage tanks for an oil-fired heating system.
Bleed an oil-fired heating system’s fuel lines and perform other routine maintenance and service procedures.
Identify the advantages and disadvantages of electric heating systems compared to combustion heating systems.
Calculate an electric heating system’s heat production when given the system’s wattage or voltage and amperage values.
Describe the three types of electric heating elements.
List examples and applications of convection electric heating systems.
Compare and contrast direct and indirect radiant heating systems.
Explain the purpose of sequencers and different contactors used in electric heating systems and how they function.
Describe the operation of airflow and safety control devices in electric heating systems.
Explain how controls are used in electric baseboard heating and some of their requirements.
Install, maintain, test, and troubleshoot electric heating systems.
Understand the nature of solar energy.
Compare flat-plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and concentrating collectors.
Characterize passive, active, and hybrid solar energy systems.
Describe the operation of air-based and liquid-based solar heating systems.
Recall applications for solar heating systems.
Explain how solar heating can be combined with various supplemental heating sources.
Describe how solar energy is converted to electricity.
Explain the operating principles of sensible and latent thermal energy storage.
Identify factors affecting heat gain, heat loss, and building energy consumption.
Explain the purpose of a building control system.
Understand the energy audit process.
Describe the three general types of building system controllers.
Explain the purpose of building control protocols, such as BACnet.
Summarize principles of control system diagnostics and repair.
Explain how the construction of a building relates to its heating and cooling efficiency.
Describe how the degree-day method can be used to estimate heating and cooling costs.
Differentiate among the various efficiency ratings used to evaluate furnaces, air conditioners, and heat pumps.
List individual components that can be changed or added to an existing HVAC system to increase energy efficiency.
Describe alternative systems and solutions that may be used to increase energy conservation.
Explain the role of the HVACR technician in energy conservation.
Recognize the types of commercial refrigeration systems and their applications.
Explain how and why ice banks are used in certain refrigeration systems.
Describe the two types of water coolers.
Describe the different types of evaporators in commercial ice machines.
List some of the industrial applications of refrigeration systems.
Identify the different types of refrigerant metering devices, evaporators, compressors, and condensers used in transportation refrigeration systems.
Summarize the operation of various expendable refrigeration systems.
Explain how thermoelectric couples produce heating and cooling using electricity.
Summarize the operation of vortex tubes, steam jet systems, and refrigerant jet systems.
Describe the operation of a basic Sterling refrigeration system.
Explain the difference between packaged and split commercial refrigeration systems.
Understand the operation and purpose of various components used in sophisticated commercial refrigeration systems.
Identify applications for multiple-evaporator systems.
Summarize the different methods of achieving variable capacity in modulating refrigeration systems.
Explain the refrigeration cycle in compound and cascade systems.
Describe the purpose and operation of secondary loop refrigeration systems.
Understand the relationship between total heat load, service heat load, and heat leakage load.
Compute a system’s heat leakage load.
Calculate a system’s service heat load manually and by using manufacturer’s tables.
Use heat leakage load, service heat load, and all applicable miscellaneous heat loads to calculate a system’s total heat load.
Compute the total heat load for a water cooler.
Summarize the thermodynamic principles at work in the basic refrigeration cycle.
Identify the various lines on a pressure-enthalpy diagram.
Interpret the graphs of different refrigeration cycles on pressure-enthalpy diagrams.
Identify the factors that affect compressor sizing.
Calculate a compressor’s required capacity based on its total heat load and operating cycle.
Summarize the factors that affect the heat transfer rates of evaporators and condensers.
Use tables from manufacturers to size compressors, condensers, and evaporators.
List the basic criteria that must be considered when sizing refrigerant lines.
Summarize some of the basic regulations found in most codes.
Identify procedures for locating and mounting condensing units and evaporators.
Determine where to mount thermostatic expansion valve sensing bulbs based on suction line tubing size.
Install various components, such as valves, filter-driers, and sight glasses, along refrigerant lines.
Properly mount and install open-drive compressor motors and also hermetic compressors.
Test a refrigeration installation for leaks by using leak detection devices, a standing pressure test, and a standing vacuum test.
Charge a system with refrigerant using either the low-side method or the high-side method.
Recognize the effects of an undercharged refrigeration system.
Recognize the effects of an overcharged refrigeration system.
Recognize the effects of non-condensable in a refrigeration system.
Identify causes of suction line pressure drop.
Summarize the effects of having moisture in a refrigeration system.
Check a commercial refrigeration system’s refrigerant charge.
Differentiate among the different causes of high head pressure.
Analyze a refrigeration system that runs continuously to determine its root cause.
Evaluate a refrigeration system that produces little or no cooling.
Analyze a refrigeration system that will not run to determine its root cause.
Troubleshoot basic problems in ice machines.
Properly pump down or move the refrigerant charge for system service.
Perform atmospheric balancing (pressure equalizing) before opening a system to atmosphere for service.
Safely remove a compressor from a system for replacement.
Safely replace an external electric motor.
Safely service a refrigeration system with a motor burnout in a hermetic compressor.
Add refrigerant oil to a refrigerant system using several different methods.
Safely remove, repair, and install air-cooled and water-cooled condensers.
Diagnose and repair or replace water valves.
Perform basic cooling tower maintenance.
Remove, repair, and install expansion valves.
Adjust the setting of a thermostatic expansion valve (TXV).
Diagnose, repair, install, and adjust evaporator pressure regulators (EPRs) and hot-gas valves.
Remove and replace service valves and solenoid valves.